Manual Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and Germany

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Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: A glimpse into the hero's personal life On Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose's th birth anniversary, let's take glimpse at his life beyond his struggle to bring India its independence. Also read- Modi agrees to declassify all secret Netaji files: Here's what you need to know about them There is, nonetheless, more to this hero than being a freedom fighter whom we lost to an untimely death. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. Photo: Twitter. Young Subhas Chandra Bose, standing extreme right, with his family of 14 siblings in Cuttack. Photo: Wikipedia Creative Commons.

Netaji, standing extreme right, with friends in England. Netaji with wife Emily Schenkl. Netaji's wife, Emillie, with daughter, Anita. Photo: PTI. Get real-time alerts and all the news on your phone with the all-new India Today app. Download from. Post your comment. Do You Like This Story? Diego Forlan interview: Uruguay legend opens up on finding no takers in ISL, making the switch to coaching and more.

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Fiction pick: What happened when Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose met Hitler? Read this re-creation

Assam beat Manipur by runs. Himachal Pradesh beat Vidarbha by 6 wickets. Odisha beat Maharashtra by 3 wickets. Karnataka beat Andhra by 53 runs. Australia Women beat Sri Lanka Women by runs. The idea would be first to overwhelm the British in Arakan, involving all their reserves in battle for Chittagong and the gateway to eastern Bengal.

Then, by April, Kohima and Imphal could be conquered at leisure, without danger of their being reinforced. The monsoon, beginning in May, would postpone operations, and after the rains were over, in the absence of a new British defense posture east of the river Brahmaputra, the entire Assam and East Bengal would lie open to the Indian National Army and the Japanese. Imphal, the capital of the state of Manipur, lay on a flat, nearly treeless plateau just inside the Indian border. Its elevation was about 3, feet, surrounded on all sides by impassable mountains.

The mountain range in the east with 2,, foot peaks above the plateau stretches some five hundred miles. To the West and South are the Chin hills of the Arakan range, a formidable stretch of inhospitable terrain. The jungle surrounding this basin is hostile to human habitation. From Dimapur, a single track railway swept through Assam and Bengal and was an important military objective to both armies.

For the INA the importance of the Imphal campaign was that it was the only major battle in which it would participate with the object of achieving freedom for India. As Salto and Hayashida writes:. The campaign lasted from 15 March to 9 July The operation has often been compared to the operation Wacht am Rhein or the Battle of the Bulge, which was the final all-out drive launched by Germany towards Ardennes on the Western Front, from December to January Both operations almost succeeded and both are termed "gambles" by historians today.

Documents on the same theme

If the German push towards Ardennes was Wacht am Rhein , the Japanese-Indian thrust against Imphal might be called "Wacht am Chindwin" although the official Japanese code-name for the action was most prosaic: Operation "U". River Chindwin lay across the Indo-Burmese border, and its crossing from the east by an army would signal an invasion of India. Execution orders for Operation U became operative on 7 January , coinciding with completion of the shifting of the Provisional Government headquarters in Rangoon.

In the evening of the same day, Lt. General Masakazy Kawabe, commanding the overall Burma headquarters, held a welcome party in honor of Netaji and his staff officers. Netaji spoke, and concluded his speech with these words. Toye writes. He spent the whole days These were his comrades, the men by whose means he would uphold the rights and honour of India.

Everything depended on their achievement in battle; they must absorb all his feelings of confidence, feel the whole of his personal force. On 3 February he bade them farewell: "Blood is calling for blood. We have no time to lose. Take up your arms. There in front of you is the road. We shall march along that road. We shall carve our way through enemy's ranks, or, if God wills, we shall die a martyr's death.

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero () - IMDb

And in our last sleep we shall kiss the road which will bring our Army to Delhi. The road to Delhi is the road to Freedom. On to Delhi! Mutaguchi set 15 March as the D-day for the beginning of the Imphal campaign. The deployment of well over , troops along the Chindwin river, a front of some kilometers, went on smoothly and undetected by British spies planted in the area.


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In the meantime, Netaji received some good news. At the same time, he received messages from the underground network working inside India under his direction, whose selected trained spies had been sent by submarine. On D-day, Mutaguchi assembled the war correspondents at his headquarters in central Burma and declared: "I am firmly convinced that my three divisions will reduce Imphal in one month. In order that they can march fast, they carry the lightest possible equipment and food enough for three weeks.

And, they will get everything from the British supplies and dumps. See you again in Imphal at the celebration of the Emperor's birthday on 29 April.

Activity in exile

The Japanese-Indian offensive took the British by complete surprise. The Japanese and INA troops literally galloped through mountains and jungles routing the enemy on the way. Now the INA's deployment was extended to the Imphal sector. As the INA under Netaji's command set foot on the Indian soil, the main Japanese force also defeated the obstinate resistance of the enemy on 22 March, broke through the India-Burma border, and advanced from the north and west to encircle Imphal.

The initial success of the INA at the Arakan front generated much enthusiasm. In response to a call by Netaji, Prime Minister Tojo made an announcement clarifying that all areas of India occupied as a result of Japanese advance would be placed under the jurisdiction of the Provisional Government.

This was followed by Netaji's announcement that he was appointing the Finance Minister of his cabinet, Major-General A. Chatterjee, as the governor of the newly liberated areas. Netaji described the march of the INA into India as the event of the century.


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He had also just declared the Legion in Europe to be part of the INA and had appointed Nambiar to be a Minister in the Provisional Government; his Chief Commissioner had been installed in the Andamans, his first heroes from the Arakan front had been decorated, and the, INA troops had raised the national standard of free India in Kohima; and now, the fall of Imphal seemed very near.

Did the Imphal Campaign come almost two years too late?

source url What would have happened if Netaji had arrived in East Asia a year earlier? By the end of , the Axis had scored successes everywhere. Rommel was in Egypt, the German invasion of Russia had gone smoothly, Nationalist China was on her knees, and India and Australia were expecting a Japanese invasion. Britain was unable to dispute with the Japanese Navy, and there were not enough British and Indian troops in India to assure its defense.

Even air protection was inadequte Japanese forces had not pursued retreating British troops beyond the Chindwin river in Burma in May , allegedly because "an invasion was likely to arouse ill-feelings amongst the Indian masses. So the Japanese remained east of the Chindwin river, leaving British Indian forces to build up their strength in the Imphal plain. But above all, in that moment of a golden opportunity, the towering leadership of Netaji, a provisional government, and an Indian national army worthy of its name -- all these were non-existent in East Asia.

Japan by itself simply lacked the motivation for extending war into India, let alone think of its independence.

The fact remains, however, that the Imphal campaign was indeed first conceived in , right after the conquest of Burma. Soon after the completion of the Japanese conquest of Burma in June , a certain Lt. Hayashi had advocated an attack on Imphal. He considered that the Japanese should strike against India without giving time to the defenders to recuperate from their disastrous retreat, and Imphal's capture would rob them of the best base for launching a counter-offensive against Burma About December , therefore, the plan was abandoned.

Lieutenant-General Kuroda Shigetoku, Southern Army Chief of Staff, stated later that if the operation had been carried out in when first conceived, rather than in , it would have succeeded. According to Lebra, "General Tojo stated in the spring of that he regretted Japan had missed the opportunity in As the INA and the Japanese forces continued to lay siege on Imphal, the Allied air superiority gained strength and the enemy was preparing for counterattack.

Shah Nawaz, commanding two battalions of the Subhas Regiment in the Chin Hills, told of the hardships his men were suffering as a result of disease and of supply and transport difficulties. However, owing to communication problems, the news of difficulties his men were undergoing at the front did not reach Netaji in detail. While there was a stalemate in the front and the offensive came to a halt, there were meetings and jubilations at Rangoon where Netaji collected money and donations in other forms for the conduct of his campaign. He offered to send additional INA regiments to the Front and more troops were despatched.

For about a month Operation U went according to plan. Enemy forces were successfully encircled in the Imphal area. Wingate's airborne unit had already been attacking from air over Burma supply routes. British forces were being supplied by airlift into the besieged Imphal, and reinforcements began to flow in.